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In most jurisdictions, a board of directors is not required for privately held companies.  However, many of these companies have appointed what might be termed advisory boards.  Although they may not have any legal authority, owners of these privately owned companies have discovered that this...

A  recent article in M&A Today offered some observations concerning current and future M&A trends. “The business world is constantly changing.  For the first half of the 20th century, vertical integration was the objective in which, oil companies, for example, owned the entire process from drilling...

1. Start with the business -  Value Drivers:  Size, growth rate, management, niche, history -  Value Detractors:  Customer concentration Poor financials Outdated M&E Few assets Lack of agreements with employees, customers, suppliers Poor exit possibilities Small market Potential technology changes Product or service very price sensitive 2. Financial analysis: Market Value - comparables Multiple of Earnings - based on rate...

“There are many reasons for valuing an entity, and those circumstances can lead to different outcomes…For instance, a business’s value for sale on a going-concern basis will differ from its value for liquidation purposes.  It similarly makes a difference if the valuation is for an...

Many courts and the Internal Revenue Service have defined fair market value as: "The amount at which property would exchange between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having a reasonable knowledge of relevant...